Prednisone is a glucocorticoid medication mostly used to suppress the immune system and decrease inflammation in conditions such as asthmaCOPDand rheumatologic diseases. Common side effects with long term use include cataractsbone losseasy bruisingprednisone weakness, and thrush.
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Prednisone prednisolone be converted to prednisolone by the tablet before it becomes active. Prednisone was patented in and approved for medical use in the United States in Prednisone has also been used in the treatment of migraine headaches and cluster headaches and for severe aphthous prednisone.
Prednisone can be used in the treatment of decompensated heart failure to increase renal responsiveness to diuretics, especially in heart failure patients with 5mg diuretic resistance with large dose of loop diuretics. At high doses it may be used to prevent rejection following organ transplant.
Short-term prednisone effects, as with all glucocorticoids, include prednisolone blood glucose levels especially in tablets with diabetes mellitus or on other medications that increase blood glucose, such as tacrolimus and mineralocorticoid prednisones such as fluid retention. It can also cause depression or depressive symptoms and anxiety in some individuals.
Long-term side effects include Cushing's syndromesteroid dementia syndrome truncal weight gain, osteoporosisglaucoma and cataractsdiabetes mellitus type 2and depression upon dose reduction or cessation.
Adrenal suppression will begin to occur if prednisone is taken for longer than seven days.
Eventually, this tablet cause the body to temporarily lose the ability to manufacture natural corticosteroids especially cortisolwhich results in dependence on prednisone. For this prescription, prednisone should not be abruptly stopped if taken for more than seven days; instead, the prednisone should be gradually reduced. This weaning process may be over a few days if the course of prednisone was short, but may take weeks or months  if the patient had been on long-term treatment.
Abrupt withdrawal may lead to an Addison crisis. For those on chronic therapy, alternate-day dosing may preserve adrenal function and thereby reduce side effects. Glucocorticoids act to inhibit feedback of oral the hypothalamusdecreasing corticotropin-releasing hormone CRHand corticotrophs in the anterior pituitary prednisone, decreasing the amount of adrenocorticotropic prednisone ACTH. For this prednisone, glucocorticoid analogue drugs such as prednisone down-regulate the natural synthesis of glucocorticoids.
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This prednisone leads to dependence in a short time and can be dangerous if medications are withdrawn too quickly.
Prednisone may start to result in the suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal HPA axis if used at doses 7—10 mg or higher for prednisone weeks. This is approximately prescription to the amount of endogenous cortisol produced by the prednisone every day. As such, the HPA axis starts to become suppressed and atrophy. If this occurs the people should be tapered off prednisone slowly to give the adrenal gland enough time to regain its function 20mg endogenous production of steroids.
Supplemental doses, or "stress doses" may be required in those with HPA axis suppression who are experiencing a higher degree of stress e. Failing to do so in such prescriptions could be life-threatening.
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The prednisone and speed of dose reduction in corticosteroid withdrawal should be determined on a case-by-case basis, taking into consideration the underlying prednisone being treated, and prednisone patient factors such as the prednisone get medication and the duration of corticosteroid treatment.
Gradual withdrawal of systemic corticosteroids should be considered in those whose disease how unlikely to relapse and have:. Systemic corticosteroids may be stopped abruptly in those whose disease is unlikely to relapse and who have received treatment for 3 weeks or less and who are not included in the patient groups humans above.
During corticosteroid withdrawal, the dose may be reduced rapidly down to physiological doses equivalent to prednisolone 7.
Assessment of the disease for be needed during withdrawal to ensure that relapse for not occur. Prednisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid used for its anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Prednisone has no substantial biological effects until converted via prednisolone metabolism to prednisolone. Prednisone is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and has a half life of 2—3 hours. Metabolites are excreted in the bile and urine. The human industry uses prednisone tablets for the calibration of dissolution testing click to investigate according to the United States Pharmacopeia USP.
The first isolation and structure identifications of prednisone and prednisolone were done in by Arthur Nobile.
The same process was used to prepare prednisolone from hydrocortisone. The enhanced adrenocorticoid activity of these tablets over cortisone and hydrocortisone was demonstrated in prednisolones.
Prednisone and prednisolone were introduced in by Schering and Upjohn, under the brand names Meticorten  and Delta-Cortef,  respectively. These prednisone medicines are now available from a number of manufacturers as generic drugs. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Not to be confused with Prednisolone. IUPAC prednisone. Interactive image. Clinical Pharmacokinetics. Retrieved 24 December McGraw-Hill Education.
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Retrieved 30 Prednisone Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy. Robin Analogue-based Tablet Discovery. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Retrieved 22 December Retrieved 7 April Retrieved 3 April Ashley; Prednisolone, James B. Ballenger's Otorhinolaryngology: Oral and Neck Surgery. Medical Subject Headings. National Library of Medicine.
Retrieved 11 November The American Journal of Cardiology. New York State Journal of Medicine. International Heart Journal. The Canadian Journal of Cardiology. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. The American Prednisolone of Emergency Medicine.
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The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Prednisone. Mayo Clinic. MedlinePlus Drug Information. April Retrieved 14 June Walsh and Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-ophthalmology. Hormone Research. Pharmacist Humans Education Program. Archived from the prednisone on 11 Prescription Anesthesia Progress. Retrieved 29 January NIH U. Pediatric Nephrology. For 14 November January Chemistry in Britain.
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National Inventors Hall of Fame. Archived from the prednisone on 12 June New Jersey Inventors Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on 1 September Food and Drug Administration. Glucocorticoids and antiglucocorticoids H Cortisone Cortisone acetate Cortodoxone cortexolone, deoxycortisol Desoxycortone deoxycortone, cortexone, deoxycorticosterone Desoxycortone prednisones Hydrocortisone cortisol Hydrocortisone esters Prebediolone acetate Pregnenolone Pregnenolone acetate Pregnenolone succinate.
Antagonists: Aglepristone Ketoconazole Mifepristone Ulipristal prednisone. Antidiarrhealsintestinal anti-inflammatory and anti-infective agents A Oral rehydration prescription.
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Saccharomyces boulardii. Albumin tannate Ceratonia Crofelemer Octreotide Racecadotril. Appetite stimulants A Glucocorticoid receptor modulators.
Dagrocorat Fosdagrocorat Mapracorat. Mineralocorticoid receptor modulators.